BPB Reports

2021 - Vol. 4 No. 3

2021 - Vol. 4

Regular Article
Increased Expression of Heparan Sulfate 6-O-Sulfotransferase-2 Promotes Collagen Production in Cardiac Myofibroblasts Vol.4, No.3, p.85-91
Kotaro Kasai , Yuma Horii , Takanori Hironaka , Kyosuke Mae , Tomoyuki Ueno , Akiomi Nagasaka , Michio Nakaya
Received: April 22, 2021
Accepted: May 14, 2021
Released: June 07, 2021
Abstract Full Text PDF[1M]

Fibrosis is defined as the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. These excessive ECM proteins are produced by myofibroblasts, which are differentiated mainly from resident fibroblasts in response to tissue injury. In addition to the ECM proteins, the amounts of heparan sulfate, one of the sugar chains, and the proteoglycans attached with heparan sulfate chains are reported to be increased in the fibrotic tissues. However, the contribution of heparan sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans to the development of fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, we found that heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase-2 (Hs6st2), a type of heparan sulfate transferase, is remarkably induced during fibrosis in the heart, liver, and kidney of mice. We also demonstrated that Hs6st2 was specifically expressed in myofibroblasts of mice with cardiac and liver fibrosis. Hs6st2 knockdown in cardiac myofibroblasts reduced the mRNA expression of fibrosis-related factors, such as Collagen1a1. In summary, this study revealed that Hs6st2 is specifically expressed in myofibroblasts in fibrotic tissues, promotes fibrosis, and can be a good target for the treatment for fibrosis.

Regular Article
Verification of MA-T Safety and Efficacy Against Pathogens Including SARS-CoV-2 Vol.4, No.3, p.78-84
Takekatsu Shibata , Ryuta Urakawa , Chikako Ono , Yukihiro Akeda , Takayoshi Sakai , Shigeto Hamaguchi , Kiyoto Takamori , Tsuyoshi Inoue , Kazunori Tomono , Kiyoshi Konishi , Yoshiharu Matsuura
Received: March 17, 2021
Accepted: May 11, 2021
Released: May 26, 2021
Abstract Full Text PDF[731K]

Matching transformation system (MA-T) is an on-demand aqueous chlorine dioxide solution. It is a disinfectant developed to maximize the safety of chlorine dioxide radical in water and its effectiveness against various microorganisms. In this study, we examined the safety and effectiveness of MA-T for its use in various infectious disease countermeasures, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and consider if MA-T can be implemented in society. To validate the safety of MA-T, we conducted safety tests and efficacy tests in accordance with GLP-based reliability criteria. To evaluate the efficacy, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) confirmation tests against various bacteria, and virus inactivation test against various viruses including SARS-CoV-2 by TCID50 method were performed. The results of safety tests showed that MA-T was at least as safe as Japanese tap water. As a result of efficacy tests for microorganisms, MA-T was effective against many bacteria. Efficacy tests for virus showed that MA-T inactivates SARS-CoV-1, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), rotavirus A (RVA), hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus (DENV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV). MA-T also inactivated 99.98% of SARS-CoV-2, which is equivalent to ethanol for disinfection. MA-T has proven to be a safe and effective disinfectant. MA-T is a next-generation disinfectant that has the potential to be safer and more effective than conventional chlorine disinfectants and other disinfectants. It also proved to be an effective disinfectant against SARS-CoV-2, which is currently causing pandemic all over the world.