BPB Reports

2020 - Vol. 3 No. 2

2020 - Vol. 3

Regular Article
Activation of TRPV4 Channel Regulates Differentiation to and Function of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Vol.3, No.2, p.70-75
Moeka Yamamoto , Ichiro Horie , Yoichiro Isohama , Mitsutoshi Tsukimoto
Received: December 23, 2019
Accepted: March 16, 2020
Released: March 25, 2020
Abstract Full Text PDF[2M]

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which are derived from immature bone marrow cell (BMC) populations that proliferate in the tumor microenvironment, suppress T cell immune responses. Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 4, which is a Ca2+ channel, is involved in tumor growth, but the role of TRP channels in MDSC differentiation and function remains unclear. Here, we first investigated the involvement of TRP channels in the differentiation of MDSCs. The selective TRPV4 channel antagonist RN-1734 increased the population of MDSCs (CD11b+Gr-1+) at Day 3, while the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A decreased it, suggesting that stimulation of TRPV4 suppresses the differentiation of BMCs to MDSCs. GSK1016790A also increased the production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, but suppressed the expression of Arg-1 mRNA, which encodes arginase-1, in MDSCs. Furthermore, GSK1016790A decreased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in MDSCs, thereby attenuating STAT3 signaling. Our results suggest that TRPV4 plays a role in regulating both the differentiation and function of MDSCs, and therefore could be a promising target for cancer immunotherapy.

Report
Interaction Between Piperacillin/Tazobactam and Warfarin: a Single-Center Retrospective Single-Arm Cohort Study Vol.3, No.2, p.65-69
Shota Kadomura , Yoh Takekuma , Shungo Imai , Hitoshi Kashiwagi , Kotaro Kawamoto , Tatsuya Itoh , Mitsuru Sugawara
Received: January 26, 2020
Accepted: March 09, 2020
Released: March 16, 2020
Abstract Full Text PDF[1011K]

Antibiotics influence the anticoagulation effect of warfarin and increase the bleeding risk in patients who are receiving warfarin. Piperacillin/tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ) is commonly used to treat infections such as healthcare-associated infection. However, there have been few reports about the interaction between warfarin and PIPC/TAZ. In this study, we investigated the influence of PIPC/TAZ on the anticoagulation effect of warfarin in hospitalized patients. The primary outcome was elevation of prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) after PIPC/TAZ administration. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of patients with supratherapeutic levels of PT-INR, discontinuation of administration or reduction in the dose of warfarin, bleeding, transfusion, and vitamin-K rescue. Fifteen patients were enrolled in this study. PT-INR elevation occurred in 11 (73.3%) of the 15 patients. The median value of PT-INR after administration of PIPC/TAZ was significantly higher than the value before administration: 2.22 (interquartile range (IQR), 2.05-2.76) and 1.90 (IQR, 1.36-2.45), respectively (p = 0.024). Three (20%) of the 15 patients had PT-INR over 4, and discontinuation of administration or reduction in the dose of warfarin was needed in 6 (40%) of the 15 patients. Bleeding occurred in one patient, transfusion was performed in one patient and vitamin-K rescue was performed in one patient. This study showed that PIPC/TAZ induced elevation of PT-INR in patients receiving warfarin and that discontinuation or reduction in the dose of warfarin was needed in 40% of the patients. Therefore, we recommend to close monitoring of PT-INR in patients treated with warfarin during PIPC/TAZ administration.

Report
Urinary Bile Acid Shows Diurnal Fluctuation and Phase Shift with Daytime-Restricted Feeding in Rats Vol.3, No.2, p.60-64
Hiroshi Kawai , Ai Kurokawa , Takuya Ishibashi , Reiko Iwadate , Naomi Kudo , Yoichi Kawashima , Atsushi Mitsumoto
Received: January 09, 2020
Accepted: March 02, 2020
Released: March 16, 2020
Abstract Full Text PDF[804K]

Dysregulation of the biological clock disrupts the homeostasis of physiological functions, which may lead to the development of various disorders. To investigate the relationship between biological rhythms and disorders, an efficient monitoring method of the biological clock is necessary. In this study, we analyzed the circadian rhythmicity profile of bile acids in urine and investigated whether urinary bile acid (UBA) could reflect the circadian rhythm in liver physiology. Male Wistar-Hannover rats were maintained in metabolic cages under ad lib feeding and later subjected to restricted feeding (in which rats were fed only during light periods). Excreted urine was collected in each session, and bile acid contents were analyzed via an enzyme-based total bile acid assay. UBA content showed diurnal fluctuations under both ad lib and restricted feeding conditions and reached a peak during the dark period of ad lib feeding. In contrast, with restricted feeding, the peak was observed during light periods. Restricted feeding induced an 8-12 h phase shift. Diurnal fluctuation and phase shift by restricted feeding are distinctive features controlled by biological clocks in peripheral tissues. Since bile acids are synthesized in the liver, we propose that UBA might reflect the circadian fluctuation in liver physiology.

Report
(–)-Isostemonamine Can Enhance the Anti-Proliferative Activity of Trichostatin A Against Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells Vol.3, No.2, p.56-59
Masayo Hirao-Suzuki , Shuso Takeda , Takayuki Iwata , Satoshi Fujita , Taishi Tomiyama , Masufumi Takiguchi , Akihisa Toda , Mitsuru Shindo
Received: January 06, 2020
Accepted: February 13, 2020
Released: March 12, 2020
Abstract Full Text PDF[1M]

Recent findings established (–)-isostemonamine as an anti-proliferator for estrogen receptor α-negative human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231, known to grow/divide at an aggressive rate. However, ST-4, a thioamide derivative of (–)-isostemonamine, is believed to not affect the viability of these cells. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, are involved in the progression of many cancers, including breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated whether ST-4 and its related compounds (ST-3 and ST-5) can potentiate the anti-proliferative activity of the established epigenetic modifiers, 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC; a DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor), trichostatin A (TSA; a class I/II histone deacetylase inhibitor), and etoposide (a DNA topoisomerase IIα inhibitor). Data obtained from this study demonstrate that, among the studied compounds, ST-4 displays the strongest enhancement of the anti-proliferative activity of TSA, against MDA-MB-231 cells (IC20 of TSA = 14 ± 3.4 nM versus that of TSA/ST-4 combination = 7.8 ± 1.1 nM). However, this effect was not observed at higher concentrations of above 25 nM of TSA, at which the IC50 values of TSA with or without ST-4 were not significantly different (30 ± 4.4 nM versus 28 ± 1.4 nM, respectively). Results from the study suggest that combining ST-4 with established anti-cancer agents could potentiate the latter’s anti-proliferative activity, thereby potentially minimizing the concentration of these agents needed for optimal clinical efficacy and safety.